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Peptidoglycan Deacetylases in Bacterial Cell Wall Remodeling and Pathogenesis.
A. Planas.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 28, 1293-1312 (2022).


The bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) is a dynamic structure that is constantly synthesized, re-modeled and degraded during bacterial division and growth. Post-synthetic modifications modulate the action of endogenous autolysis during PG lysis and remodeling for growth and sporulation, but also they are a mechanism used by pathogenic bacteria to evade the host innate immune system. Modifica-tions of the glycan backbone are limited to the C-2 amine and the C-6 hydroxyl moieties of either Glc-NAc or MurNAc residues. This paper reviews the functional roles and properties of peptidoglycan de-N-acetylases (distinct PG GlcNAc and MurNAc deacetylases) and recent progress through genetic stud-ies and biochemical characterization to elucidate their mechanism of action, 3D structures, substrate specificities and biological functions. Since they are virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria, peptidogly-can deacetylases are potential targets for the design of novel antimicrobial agents.